The following is a list of mushroom research papers organized by topic.  We will update this list periodically when we identify relevant research and as new studies are published.  To find the abstract or complete study, we suggest entering the study of interest into Google Scholar.


General Health 

  • Barros L., Baptista P., Correia D. M., Casal S., Oliveira B., Ferreira I. C. F. R. Fatty acid and sugar compositions, and nutritional value of five wild edible mushrooms from Northeast Portugal. Food Chemistry. 2007;105(1):140–145.
  • Chang S. T., Wasser S. P. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms2012;14(2):95–134.
  • Flegg P. B., Maw G. Mushrooms and their possible contribution to the world. Mushroom Journal1997;48:395–403
  • Guarner F. Enteric flora in health and diseaseDigestion 2006;73 Suppl 1:5–12.
  • Kalač P. A review of chemical composition and nutritional value of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture2013;93(2):209–218.
  • Mattila P., Könkö K., Eurola M., et al. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2001;49(5):2343–2348.
  • Roupas P, Keogh J, Noakes M, Margetts C, Taylor P. The role of edible mushrooms in health: evaluation of the evidenceJournal of Functional Foods2012;4:687–709.
  • Valverde, M. E., Hernández-Pérez, T., & Paredes-López, O. (2015). Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life. International Journal of Microbiology2015, 376387. 
  • Wasser S. P. Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2011;89(5):1323–1332.



  • Ames BN. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triageProc Natl Acad Sci USA2006;103:17589–94.
  • McCann JC, Ames BN. Adaptive dysfunction of seleno proteins from the perspective of the triage theory: why modest selenium deficiency may increase risk of diseases of agingFASEB Journal2011;25:1793–814.
  • Xu X., Yan H., Chen J., Zhang X. Bioactive proteins from mushrooms. Biotechnology Advances2011;29(6):667–674. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv. 2011.05.003.



  • Carneiro A. A. J., Ferreira I. C. F. R., Dueñas M., et al. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dried powder formulations of Agaricus blazeiand Lentinus edodes . Food Chemistry2013;138(4):2168–2173.
  • Dubost NJ, Beelman R, Peterson D, Royse DJ. Identification and quantification of ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopyInternational Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms2006;8:215–22.
  • Ey J, Schömig E, Taubert D. Dietary sources and antioxidant effects of ergothioneineJournal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 2007;55:6466–74.
  • Ferreira I. C. F. R., Barros L., Abreu R. M. V. Antioxidants in wild mushrooms. Current Medicinal Chemistry2009;16(12):1543–1560.
  • Grigat S, Harlfinger S, Pal S, Striebinger R, Golz S, Geerts A, Lazar A, Schömig E, Gründemann D. Probing the substrate specificity of the ergothioneine transporter with methimazole, hercynine, and organic cationsBiochem Pharmacol 2007;74:309–16.
  • Gründemann D, Harlfinger S, Golz S, Geerts A, Lazar A, Berkels R, Jung N, Rubbert A, Schömig E. Discovery of the ergothioneine transporterProceedings of the National Academy of Science USA2005;102:5256–61.
  • Gründemann D. The ergothioneine transporter controls and indicates ergothioneine activity—a reviewPreventative Medicine 2012;54:S71–4. 
  • Heleno S. A., Barros L., Sousa M. J., Martins A., Ferreira I. C. F. R. Tocopherols composition of Portuguese wild mushrooms with antioxidant capacity. Food Chemistry. 2010;119(4):1443–1450.
  • Kawano H, Otani M, Takeyama K, Kawai Y, Mayumi T, Hama T. Studies on ergothioneine. VI. Distribution and fluctuations of ergothioneine in ratsChemical Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo)1982;30:1760–5.
  • Paul BD, Snyder SH. The unusual amino acid L-ergothioneine is a physiologic cytoprotectantCell Death Differences2010;17:1134–40.
  • Sarikurkcu C., Tepe B., Yamac M. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of four edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Eskisehir—Turkey: Lactarius deterrimusSuillus collitinusBoletus edulisXerocomus chrysenteronBioresource Technology2008;99(14):6651–6655.
  • Weigand-Heller AJ, Kris-Etherton PM, Beelman RB. The bioavailability of ergothioneine from mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and the acute effects on antioxidant capacity and biomarkers of inflammationPreventative Medicine2012;54:S75–8. 
  • Yeh M.-Y., Ko W.-C., Lin L.-Y. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of enoki mushrooms (Flammulina velutipesBioMed Research International2014;2014:6.



  • Cantorna MT, Hayes CE, DeLuca HF. 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the progression of arthritis in murine models of human arthritisJournal of Nutrition 1998;128:68–72. 


Brain Health 

  • Bennett L, Sheean P, Zabaras D, Head R. Heat-stable components of wood ear mushroom, Auricularia polytricha(higher Basidiomycetes), inhibit in vitro activity of beta secretase (BACE1)International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2013;15:233–49.
  • Wang LC, Wang SE, Wang JJ, Tsai TY, Lin CH, Pan TM, Lee CL. In vitro and in vivo comparisons of the effects of the fruiting body and mycelium of Antrodia camphorata against amyloid β-protein-induced neurotoxicity and memory impairmentApplied Microbiology Biotechnology 2012;94:1505–19. 



  • Chen S, Oh SR, Phung S, Hur G, Ye JJ, Kwok SL, Shrode GE, Belury M, Adams LS, Williams D. Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)Cancer Research2006;66:12026–34.
  • Daba A. S., Ezeronye O. U. Minireview. Anti-cancer effect of polysaccharides isolated from higher basidiomycetes mushrooms. African Journal of Biotechnology2003;2:272–278.
  • Ferreira I. C. F. R., Vaz J. A., Vasconcelos M. H., Martins A. Compounds from wild mushrooms with antitumor potential. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry2010;10(5):424–436. 
  • Finimundy T. C., Gambato G., Fontana R., et al. Aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodesand Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibit high antioxidant capability and promising in vitro antitumor activity. Nutrition Research2013;33(1):76–84.
  • Ng T. B., Wang H. X. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology2005;57(12):1509–1519.
  • Patel S., Goyal A. Recent developments in mushrooms as anticancer therapeutics: a review. 3 Biotech. 2012;2(1):1–15. doi: 10.1007/s 13205-011-0036-2.
  • Shin A, Kim J, Lim SY, Kim G, Sung MK, Lee ES, Ro J. Dietary mushroom intake and the risk of breast cancer based on hormone receptor statusNutrition and Cancer 2010;62:476–83. 
  • Vaz J. A., Heleno S. A., Martins A., Almeida G. M., Vasconcelos M. H., Ferreira I. C. F. R. Wild mushrooms Clitocybe alexandriand Lepista inversain vitro antioxidant activity and growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines. Food and Chemical Toxicology2010;48(10):2881–2884.
  • Wasser S. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2002;60(3):258–274. 
  • Yu J., Sun R., Zhao Z., Wang Y. Auricularia polytricha polysaccharides induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules2014;68:67–71.
  • Zaidman B.-Z., Yassin M., Mahajna J., Wasser S. P. Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2005;67(4):453–468.
  • Zhang L., Fan C., Liu S., Zang Z., Jiao L. Chemical composition and antitumor activity of polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquusJournal of Medicinal Plants Research2011;5(7):1251–1260.



  • Aida F. M. N. A., Shuhaimi M., Yazid M., Maaruf A. G. Mushroom as a potential source of prebiotics: a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2009;20(11-12):567–575.
  • National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Release 26 [database on the Internet]. Washington: USDA; 2013 [cited 2013 Nov 25]. 
  • Varshney J, Ooi JH, Jayarao BM, Albert I, Fisher J, Smith RL, Patterson AD, Cantorna MT. White button mushrooms increase microbial diversity and accelerate the resolution of Citrobacter rodentium infection in miceJournal of Nutrition 2013;143:526–32.


Heart Health 

  • Guillamón E., García-Lafuente A., Lozano M., et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fitoterapia. 2010;81(7):715–723.


Immune Function 

  • Beckett GJ, Arthur JR. Selenium and endocrine systems. Journal of Endocrinology 2005;184:455–65.
  • Chang ST, Buswell JA. Medicinal mushrooms—a prominent source of nutraceuticals for the 21st centuryCurrent Topics Nutraceutical Research. 2003;1:257–80. 
  • Dai X, Stanilka JM, Rowe CA, Creasy RA, Percival SS. Consumption of Lentinula edodes modulates human immune function by altering cytokine secretion of PBMC ex vivoFASEB Journal 2013;27:643.15.
  • Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington: National Academies Press; 2000.
  • Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in miceJournal of Nutrition2008;138:544–50.
  • Spaulding T, Beelman RB. Survey evaluation of selenium and other minerals in Agaricus mushrooms commercially grown in the United States. Mushroom News 2003;51:6–9.
  • Stanilka JM, Rowe CA, Creasy RA, Dai X, Percival SS. Lentinula edodes consumption: proliferation, activation and modification of memory and naive innate immune cell populationsFASEB Journal 2013;27:643.17.
  • Wang J, Niu X, Du X, Smith D, Meydani SN, Wu D. Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom augments the protective immune response to Salmonella vaccine in miceJournal of Nutrition  2014;144:98–105.
  • Werner AW, Beelman RB. Growing high-selenium edible and medicinal button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach) as ingredients for functional foods or dietary supplements. International Journal Medical Mushrooms 2002;4:194–210.
  • Wu D, Pae M, Ren Z, Guo Z, Smith D, Meydani SN. Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom enhances natural killer cell activity in C57BL/6 miceJournal of Nutrition 2007;137:1472–7. 
  • Yu S., Weaver V., Martin K., Cantorna M. T. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation. BMC Immunology2009;10, article 12 doi: 10.1186/1471-2172-10-12.



  • Yu S., Weaver V., Martin K., Cantorna M. T. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation. BMC Immunology2009;10, article 12 doi: 10.1186/1471-2172-10-12.


Metabolism and Weight Management 

  • Cheskin LJ, Davis LM, Lipsky LM, Mitola AH, Lycan T, Mitchell V, Mickle B, Adkins E. Lack of energy compensation over 4 days when white button mushrooms are substituted for beefAppetite 2008;51:50–7.
  • Poddar KH, Ames M, Hsin-Jen C, Feeney MJ, Wang Y, Cheskin LJ. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters: a 1-year randomized clinical trialAppetite 2013;71:379–87.


Oral Health 

  • Signoretto C, Burlacchini G, Marchi A, Grillenzoni M, Cavalleri G, Ciric L, Lingström P, Pezzati E, Daglia M, Zaura E, et al. Testing a low molecular mass fraction of a mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract formulated as an oral rinse in a cohort of volunteersJournal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011;2011:857987.
  • Zaura E, Buijs MJ, Hoogenkamp MA, Ciric L, Papetti A, Signoretto C, Stauder M, Lingström P, Pratten J, Spratt DA, Wilson M. The effects of fractions from shiitake mushroom on composition and cariogenicity of dental plaque microcosms in an in vitro caries modelJournal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011; 2011:135034.


Sexual Health 

  • Das S. K., Masuda M., Sakurai A., Sakakibara M. Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects. Fitoterapia2010;81(8):961–968. 
  • Wani BA, Bodha RH, Wani AH (2010) Nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4:2598–2604.


Vitamin B 

  • Breene WM (1990). Nutritional and medicinal value of specialty mushrooms. Journal of Food Protect., 53: 883-894.
  • Mattila PH, Piironen VI, Uusi- R, Koivistoinen, PE (1994). Vit. D contents in edible mush. J. Agr. Food Chem., 42: 2449-2453.
  • Wani BA, Bodha RH, Wani AH (2010) Nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4:2598–2604.


Vitamin D 

  • Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, Gahche JJ, Dwyer JT, Moshfegh AJ, Sempos CT, Picciano MF. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United StatesJournal of Nutrition 2010;140:817–22.
  • Calvo MS, Babu US, Garthoff LH, Woods TO, Dreher M, Hill G, Nagaraja S. Vitamin D2 from light-exposed edible mushrooms is safe, bioavailable and effectively supports bone growth in ratsOsteoporosis International 2013;24:197–207.
  • Haytowitz DB, Pehrsson PR, Holden JM. The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: a decade of progressJournal of Food Composition and Analysis 2008; 21: S94–102.
  • National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Release 26 [database on the Internet]. Washington: USDA; 2013